Сегодня, 28 февраля, на блоке состоялось обновление Constantinople 2-ой по капитализации криптовалюты Ethereum. Network upgrade completed.. По данным EtherNodes , Как докладывает Trustnodes , обновление протокола прошло гладко, без неожиданностей.
Сразу с Constantinople в сети Ethereum активирован хардфорк Petersburg. Его задачка — отключить протокол EIP, в котором были выявлены трудности с уязвимостью типа Reentrancy. Конкретно из-за их и был отменен апдейт в январе.
Constantinople — 2-ой шаг хардфорка Metropolis 1-ый — Byzantium , снизивший заслугу за блок с 5 до 3 ETH. Посреди остальных конфигураций в сети Ethereum можно отметить:. Отметим, что активация Constantinople обязана была состояться еще в осеннюю пору прошедшего года, но каждый раз накануне обновления протокола создатели находили разные баги.
Окончательная дата активации была согласована 18 января. Также напомним, что за две недельки до хардфорка Constantinople была найдена уязвимость , затрагивающая некие смарт-контракты с возможностью самоуничтожения.
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Создатели Ethereum окрестили сроки хардфорка Metropolis. Источник: cointelegraph. Материалы по теме. Внешэкономбанк и Ethereum foundation договорились о сотрудничестве. Компания с русскими корнями Chronopay запустит биржу криптовалют. В Китае откроют биржу цифровых активов на базе электронного юаня. Рубрики: Анонсы Software , Анонсы сети ,. Теги: ethereum , эфир , криптовалюта , криптоньюз , хардфорк , metropolis , обновление. До этого чем бросить комментарий, пожалуйста, ознакомьтесь с правилами комментирования.
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The third update to the Ethereum network will be Ice Age which is used to slow down the creation of new Ethereum coins. Currently there is approximately Overall it looks like it will be a busy but exciting period for Ethereum and one that is sure to see substantial growth for Ethereum once everything is successfully implemented. Keep an eye on the site for more updates. Repeated plagiarized posts are considered spam. Spam is discouraged by the community, and may result in action from the cheetah bot.
Creative Commons: If you are posting content under a Creative Commons license, please attribute and link according to the specific license. If you are posting content under CC0 or Public Domain please consider noting that at the end of your post. I am a robot. I just upvoted you! Although there is no official relates date yet for Constantinople is appears the main stumbling block is due to issues with EIP 86 Below is a brief summary of three major changes to the Ethereum blockchain: [The below points are a summary of a Steemit article by blockchain4all - read the full article here] The first major change will be something known as Zk-Snarks, which will allow customisable privacy settings.
Reply 3. Sort: Trending Trending Votes Age. Linking to your source Include your own original thoughts and ideas on what you have shared. If you are actually the original author, please do reply to let us know! Thank You! Ameer Rosic. Ethereum Metropolis is upon us!
After a lot of deliberations and updates, the time has finally arrived for the next big jump. There is a lot of buzz going on right now and for good reason. The last time Ethereum did a network shift i. What are the features that metropolis is going to bring into ethereum?
Since ethereum needs to do a hard-fork to get into Metropolis, will it create another new coin? It was designed to be a platform for decentralized applications. However, before it can do so, it needs to go through various stages of growth. The complete launch process of ethereum was divided into 4 stages.
This was done to make sure that various phases got their own developmental time and that every stage was developed as efficiently and optimally as possible. Metropolis is the 3rd stage in the 4-stage process and there are a lot of interesting features that are coming as and when it gets implemented.
Here are some of the main ones which are going to have plenty of repercussions. One of the biggest and most important features that Metropolis is bringing along is the implementation of Zk-Snarks. Zk-Snarks is based on zero knowledge proof.
There are two parties when it comes to a zero-knowledge proof as stated above , the prover and the verifier. Zero knowledge states that a prover can prove to the verifier that they possess a certain knowledge without telling them what that knowledge actually is. The idea is to fill up every row, every column and every 3X3 block with numbers from and no number should repeat itself. So, the solution for the puzzle above looks like this:.
As you can see, every row, column, and 3X3 block is unique and not a single number has been repeated. How will she go about it? Anna is going to use Zero Knowledge to prove the validity of her claim. Firstly, Carl will run the Sudoku solution through a computer program which has been verified, to be honest, and the program will run the numbers through a randomly chosen substitution cipher.
Say, for this particular problem the cipher that the program has chosen is this:. The chosen program and cipher is such that each digit has the same chance of being transmuted into its substitution as any other number. Basically, 1 has as much chance of being transmuted as 3 and 4 has as much chance of being transmuted as 9 and so on and so forth. So, using this cipher gives us the following solution to the puzzle above:.
This is what he will see. Carl will see that every number in the row is unique and since every possible number in the original solution had the same probability of being transmuted via the cipher, Carl will have no clue as to what the original solution is. Now suppose, Carl decides to take the last option and wants to see what the original puzzle in looks like when transmuted:.
Once again, since the cipher was chosen at random and all the numbers have the same probability of being transmuted, Carl will have no idea what the original solution is. How do we implement zero knowledge in code via zk-snarks and what is its use in the blockchain?
Its use in modern blockchain technology is immense. To understand its application, it is important to know how a smart contract works. A smart contract is basically an escrow of funds which gets activated once a particular function is done. Anna puts ETH in a smart contract that she gets into with Carl. Carl has to do a particular task, on the completion of which, Carl will get the ETH from the smart contract. This gets complicated when then tasks that Carl has to do are multi-layered and confidential.
Suppose you have entered a smart contract with Anna. Now, you will only get the payment if you do A, B and C. What Zk-Snarks does is that it proves that those steps have been taken in the smart contract without revealing what those steps actually are. It can just reveal part of the process without showing the whole process itself and prove that you are being honest about your claims. It then proceeds to generate two publicly available keys, a proving key pk, and a verification key vk.
These keys are both public and available to any of the concerned parties. P is the prover who is going to use 3 items as input. The proving key pk, the random input x, which is publicly available, and the privacy statement that they want to prove the knowledge of without revealing what it actually is. The verifier algorithm V has basically returned a boolean variable. So, the verifier takes in the verifying key, public input x and proof prf as input such as:. Now, about the parameter lambda.
For showing the functionality of a Zk-Snark we are going to use the same example function that Christian Lundkvist used in his article for Consensys. SHA is the hash function that is used in Bitcoin. Anna being the prover and Carl the skeptic is the verifier.
The first thing that Carl, as the verifier, has to do is to generate the proving and verifying key using the generator G. Now that the two keys are generated, Anna needs to prove the validity of the statement by generating the proof. She is going to generate the proof using the proving algorithm P. So, the proving algorithm for proof generation looks like this:.
Here, vk is the verifying key and x is the known hash value and prf is the proof that he has gotten from Anna. We, personally, cannot wait to see how Metropolis will be incorporating Zk-Snarks. So what is the difference between proof of stake and proof of work? In the beginning, it is going to be a hybrid style system where the majority of the transactions will still be done proof of work style while every th transaction is going to be proof of stake.
But what does that mean for ethereum and what are the advantages of this protocol? Even though there have been various simplistic implementations of Proof of Stake before, what separates Casper from the rest is that it incentivizes the honest miners and punishes the dishonest ones.
If you have put your stake on a malicious block, then the stake will be taken away from you. One person has a bundle of papers, each with a different transaction history. The first participant picks up a pen and signs one, then passes it onto the next person, who makes a similar choice. He then added that this is probably a good incentive to sign the right piece of paper!
The moment POS comes on board; all that equipment becomes worthless. Imagine spending so much money and having super intricate pools set up, and all that becoming completely useless. If that is the case, then what is there to stop the miners from staying on the old proof-of-work chain and continue mining on it?
This will, in essence, create three ethereum coins: Ethereum Classic , ethereum Proof-of-work and Ethereum Proof-of-stake. That is going to be an absolute nightmare. Not only will that greatly decrease the economic value and credibility of ethereum , it is also going to dilute the hashrate of the overall chain which can make it vulnerable to hacker attacks. In order to make sure that there is the proper incentive to miners to join the new chain, the ethereum developers introduced the difficulty time bomb.
The time bomb was introduced on 7th September To understand how the difficulty time bomb works, it is important to understand how difficulty and mining works. The concept of difficulty started with bitcoin. When bitcoin was first introduced, mining was extremely simple and anybody could do it using their PC.
However, as bitcoin got more and more popular the number of miners on the network increased. This raised a very real possibility of miners going out of control and mining out all the remaining bitcoins in the space of a year. The difficulty system works like this: Miners spend their computational power to solve cryptographic puzzles.
The way they do that is that they randomly append a random string called nonce to the hash of the block and then they hash the whole string. If the resulting number is less than a particular fixed number, then it is considered to be successful and the new block is added to the blockchain. The difficulty level is directly proportional to the rate at which the blocks are being mined. Bitcoin has an average block time of 10 seconds.
If the block time goes below that, then the difficulty level is increased, if it goes up, then the difficulty time decreases. This is basically how bitcoin mining works and ethereum follows the same protocol as well. The difficulty bomb will exponentially increase the difficulty so much so that mining will become impossible. Like we have said before, the difficulty level adjusts according to the rate at which the blocks are being mined.
The ethereum difficulty adjustment algorithm looks like this:. This is how the difficulty adjustment algorithm worked in the Homestead version of ethereum. So, what the difficulty bomb is going to do is that it will increase the difficulty by such an exponential amount without adjusting it that it will take more and more time to solve the cryptographic puzzles.
Eventually, it will become near impossible to mine on the chain. The difficulty time bomb is supposed to explode at the end of but it looks like it has been delayed by a year and a half. However, with Metropolis, the development team has made two changes that will smooth the process over to POS.
Хард форк Metropolis в системе Эфириум /EthereumEthereum: First Metropolis Upgrade in late September.Видео по заказу блога tora.torex174.ru Geth автоматически внедрил девять предложений по улучшению Ethereum, а также первую итерацию хардфорка Metropolis под названием. The Ethereum Constantinople update, the last piece of the Metropolis upgrade, has been postponed due to possible issues in EIP январь 16