This method of scaling requires changes to the Ethereum protocol layer 1 Mainnet. Sharding is currently the main focus for this method of scaling. Sharding is the process of splitting a database horizontally to spread the load. Learn more about sharding. Off-chain solutions are implemented separately from layer 1 Mainnet - they require no changes to the existing Ethereum protocol.
Some solutions, known as "layer 2" solutions, derive their security directly from layer 1 Ethereum consensus, such as rollups or state channels. Other solutions involve the creation of new chains in various forms that derive their security separately from Mainnet, such as sidechains or plasma chains.
These solutions communicate with Mainnet, but derive their security differently to obtain a variety of goals. This category of off-chain solutions derives its security from Mainnet Ethereum. Most layer 2 solutions are centered around a server or cluster of servers, each of which may be referred to as a node, validator, operator, sequencer, block producer, or similar term. Depending on the implementation, these layer 2 nodes may be run by the individuals, businesses or entities that use them, or by a 3rd party operator, or by a large group of individuals similar to Mainnet.
Generally speaking, transactions are submitted to these layer 2 nodes instead of being submitted directly to layer 1 Mainnet. For some solutions the layer 2 instance then batches them into groups before anchoring them to layer 1, after which they are secured by layer 1 and cannot be altered. The details of how this is done vary significantly between different layer 2 technologies and implementations. A specific layer 2 instance may be open and shared by many applications, or may be deployed by one project and dedicated to supporting only their application.
Rollups perform transaction execution outside layer 1 and then the data is posted to layer 1 where consensus is reached. As transaction data is included in layer 1 blocks, this allows rollups to be secured by native Ethereum security.
Learn more about rollups. State channels utilize multisig contracts to enable participants to transact quickly and freely off-chain, then settle finality with Mainnet. This minimizes network congestion, fees, and delays. The two types of channels are currently state channels and payment channels.
Learn more about state channels. A sidechain is an independent EVM-compatible blockchain which runs in parallel to Mainnet. These are compatible with Ethereum via two-way bridges, and run under their own chosen rules of consensus, and block parameters. Learn more about Sidechains. A plasma chain is a separate blockchain that is anchored to the main Ethereum chain, and uses fraud proofs like Optimistic rollups to arbitrate disputes.
Learn more about Plasma. ZK Rollup has no conflict time and offers improvements up to a factor of However, ZK Rollup has not yet reached the same level of compatibility as its optimistic counterparts. Since ZK Rollup has valid evidence on every transaction, its technology is more difficult to build. ZK Rollup is designed for simple tasks like transfers and live transactions. Integrating smart contract functions, while possible, has proven to be much more difficult.
This year, Vitalik Buterin predicted that ZK-Rollup will likely take several years to develop before it can be fully synthesized. However, the developers are ahead of schedule. Several ZK rollups are already implementing combinable and interoperable, even cross-rollup solutions. The development of ZK-Rollup will enable the creation of a common communication framework between the Ethereum mainnet and several Layer 2 networks, in which networks can share liquidity and overcome major challenges during the introduction.
ZK Rollup also has another unique feature: transactions become cheaper due to the way they bill per batch as more people use it. ZK-Rollup can handle an almost infinite number of transactions, so that the gas fees for transactions can be reduced to a few cents if there are enough users. This feature is known as Payback With Valid Evidence. While Ethereum is still faced with scalability problems, several developers are already in the process of implementing the ZK-Rollup Layer-2, which enables full aggregation and compatibility between contracts, smart contracts, other Layer-2 solutions and the Ethereum Virtual Machine EVM.
SNARK makes up the bulk of the ZK rollup developer library and published code and is considered a good choice for projects. A major disadvantage of SNARKs is that they require the ability to create preliminary courses that can be used to produce the necessary transaction records. If the keys are not destroyed in the trusted setup event, they can be used to generate new tokens or forge transactions. ZkSync was launched in June and in its current iteration promises 2, transactions per second with the hope of achieving higher throughput in the future.
In May, the platform began working towards the provision of smart contracts in an EVM-compatible environment with the introduction of the zkEVM test network. The main focus of zkSync is to make the transition from the Ethereum mainnet as easy as possible. It used Cairo to develop its first product, the StarkEx protocol. StarkWare publishes StarkNet, a permissionless ZK rollup network that enables developers to create and launch applications directly on Layer StarkNet aims to be a truly decentralized, multi-app scaling solution.
ZK Rollup is about to change the way the crypto community uses Ethereum. As low-cost, high-speed networks such as zkSync and StarkNet become a reality, transactions in the Ethereum mainnet are increasingly being outsourced to Layer 2. This will allow Ethereum to deliver on its vision, …. Email us: [email protected]. Remember Me. About Coincu Hot topics Random. Home Altcoins Ethereum. ZK rollups and the Ethereum scaling path November 29, Share on Facebook. Problems with the scalability of Ethereum High gas fees have become a huge problem for Ethereum.
Ethereum Average Transaction Gas Fee Source: Glassnode A number of scaling solutions have been developed over the past few years to reduce the congestion on Ethereum and lower transaction costs. Top 25 polygon validators by block Source: Polygonscan Over the past year, another type of scaling solution called rollups has caused quite a stir in the Ethereum community.
What is Zero Knowledge Rollup? Tags: Ethereum path rollups scaling. Other Posts. Next Post. Please login to join discussion. December 3,